King's Indian Defence
The basic position for the King's Indian Defence, a very popular opening against 1.d2-d4. At the start Black concedes the centre to White and in doing so voluntarily accepts a disadvantage in space. He is planning to attack the centre after he has castled and to attack on the flanks if White closes the centre. White has a series of equally good systems to fight back against the King's Indian Defence.
Classical System: 1. d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 Bg7 4.e4 d6 5.Nf3 0-0 6.Be2
In the Classical System White develops his light-squared bishop and in most variations shortly after that he castles. In the main variation Black immediately attacks the white centre with 6.e7-e5. Thereupon White can castle short, advance the d-pawn or take the pawn and temporarily win a pawn.
Makogonov Variation: 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 Bg7 4.e4 d6 5.h3
In the Makogonov Variation White is planning after the typical attack on his centre with 5... e7-e5 to close the centre with 6.d2-d4. With the pawn move h2-h3 he would like to be prepared for a possible expansion by Black on the kingside. In many variations White castles, here to the queenside. Black's main idea after the closing of the centre nevertheless is still the attempt to become active on the kingside with moves such as ...Nf6-h5 and then ...f7-f5.
Averbakh System: 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 Bg7 4.e4 d6 5.Be2 0-0 6.Bg5
In the Averbakh System White adopts a setup which, unlike in the Classical System, stops Black from being able to attack his centre with 3... e7-e5. White would exchange the pawns on e5 and the queens on d8 and then exploit the pin on the f6-knight by putting his own knight on d5. So Black attacks the centre either with 6... c7-c5 or prepares the advance … e7-e5 with the unusual knight move 6... Nb8-a6
Sämisch Variation: 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 Bg7 4.e4 d6 5.f3
With his last move White supports his centre and prepares to develop his dark-squared bishop to e3. One plan is to castle long and then mount a pawn storm on the kingside. After short castling Black has various plans available to him. A popular one is the attack on the white centre with ...c7-c5. Another one is to become active on the queenside according to the pattern ...Nb8-c6, ...a7-a6, ...Ra8-b8 and ...b7-b5.
Fianchetto-System: 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 Bg7 4.Nf3 0-0 5.g3 d6 6.Bg2
In the Fianchetto-System White at first does without the pawn advance e2-e4 and goes for a very solid setup with the development of his light-squared bishop to g2. Black has various ideas for generating counterplay.. He can attack the white centre with 6...Nbd7 and then 7...e5 , but he can also try to become active on the queenside, following the pattern ...Nb8-c6, ...a7-a6, ...Ra8-b8 and ...b7-b5, which is known from the Sämisch Variation.